Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+ and hydroxide anions OH−.Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base an...
ProductionMiningTrona, trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate (Na3HCO3CO3·2H2O), is mined in several areas of the US and provides nearly all the domestic consumption of sodium carbonate. Large natural deposits found in 1938, such as the o...
Occurrence as natural mineralSodium carbonate is soluble in water, and can occur naturally in arid regions, especially in mineral deposits (evaporites) formed when seasonal lakes evaporate. Deposits of the mineral natron have been mined fro...
HydratesSodium carbonate crystallizes from water to form three different hydrates:sodium carbonate decahydrate (natron), Na2CO3·10H2O.sodium carbonate heptahydrate (not known in mineral form), Na2CO3·7H2O.sodium carbonate monohydrate (the...
Physical propertiesThe integral enthalpy of solution of sodium carbonate is −28.1 kJ/mol for a 10% w/w aqueous solution. The Mohs hardness of sodium carbonate monohydrate is 1.3.
Main applicationsBy far the largest consumption of sodium carbonate is in the manufacture of glass, paper, rayon, soaps, and detergents. It is also used as a water softener, since carbonate can precipitate the calcium and magnesium ions pre...
Sodium carbonate testThe sodium carbonate test (not to be confused with sodium carbonate extract test) is used to distinguish between some common metal ions, which are precipitated as their respective carbonates. The test can distinguish be...
Domestic useSoda ash is used as a water softener in laundering: it competes with the magnesium and calcium ions in hard water and prevents them from bonding with the detergent being used, but does not prevent scaling. Sodium carbonate can b...
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.It most commonly occurs as a crystalline decahydrate, whi...
In folklore and popular culturePotassium nitrate was once thought to induce impotence, and is still falsely rumored to be in institutional food (such as military fare) as an anaphrodisiac; however, there is no scientific evidence for such p...

Potassium Nitrate-Uses May 21, 2018

UsesPotassium nitrate has a wide variety of uses, largely as a source of nitrate.Nitric acid productionHistorically, nitric acid was produced by combining sulfuric acid with nitrates such as saltpeter. In modern times this is reversed: nitr...
ProductionPotassium nitrate can be made by combining ammonium nitrate and potassium hydroxide.NH4NO3 (aq) + KOH (aq) → NH3 (g) + KNO3 (aq) + H2O (l)An alternative way of producing potassium nitrate without a by-product of ammonia is to com...
History of productionFrom mineral sourcesThe earliest known complete purification process for potassium nitrate was outlined in 1270 by the chemist and engineer Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya (Th...
PropertiesPotassium nitrate has an orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature, which transforms to a trigonal system at 129 °C (264 °F).Potassium nitrate is moderately soluble in water, but its solubility increases with temperatur...
Potassium nitrate, because of its early and global use and production, has many names. Hebrew and Egyptian words for it had the consonants n-t-r, indicating likely cognation in the Greek nitron, which was Latinised to nitrum or nitrium. The...

Potassium nitrate May 11, 2018

Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+and nitrate ions NO3−, and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate.It occurs in nature as a mineral, niter. It is a source of nit...