Colorless transparent liquid.It smells like acetone.Volatile.It can be miscible with ethanol, ether, benzene, chloroform and oil.It is soluble in 4 parts water, but the solubility decreases as the temperature increases.11.3% can form azeotrope with water (water), azeotropic temperature 73.4 ℃ (including butanone 88.7%).Relative density (d204)0.805.Freezing point - 8r and air can form explosive mixture, explosion limit of 1.81%~11.5%(volume).High concentrations of steam are narcotic.
Appearance and properties: colorless liquid with acetone-like odor.
Melting point (℃) : 85.9
Relative density (water =1):0.81
Boiling point (℃) : 79.6
Relative vapor density (air =1):2.42
Saturated vapor pressure (kPa) : 9.49 (20 ℃)
Heat of combustion (kJ/mol) : 2441.8
Critical temperature (℃) : 260
Critical pressure (MPa):4.40
Log of octanol/water partition coefficient :0.29
Flash point (℃) : 9
Explosion upper limit %(V/V):11.4
Ignition temperature (℃) : 404
Lower explosion limit %(V/V):1.7
Solubility: soluble in water, ethanol, ether, but soluble in oil.
Molecular structure data:
1. Molar refractive index :20.60
2. Molar volume (m3/mol):91.6
3. Zhang birong (90.2k):196.3
4. Surface tension (dyne/cm):21.0
5. Polarizability (10-24cm3):8.17
1. Butanone is prone to various reactions due to its carbonyl group and its adjacent active hydrogen.Condensation with hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide produces 3, 4-dimethyl-3-hexene-2-ketone or 3-methyl-3-heptene-5-ketone.When exposed to sunlight for a long time, ethane, acetic acid and condensation products are produced.Diacetyl is formed when nitric acid is oxidized.Acetic acid is produced when oxidized with strong oxidants such as chromic acid.Butanone to heat stable, above 500 ℃ hot tear formation ketene or methyl ketene.When condensation occurs with aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes, high molecular weight ketones, cyclic compounds, ketones and resins are produced.For example, when it condenses with formaldehyde in the presence of sodium hydroxide, it first produces 2-methyl-1-butanol-3-ketone, and then dehydrates to form methyl isopropyl ketone.The compound resins when exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light.Condensation with phenol to form 2, 2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) butane.React with aliphatic esters in the presence of an alkaline catalyst to produce -diketone.Acylation with anhydride in the presence of an acid catalyst yields -diketone.React with hydrogen cyanide to form cyanol.React with ammonia to form ketopidine derivatives.The -hydrogen atoms of butanone are easily replaced by halogens to form a variety of halogenated ketones, such as 3-chloro-2-butanone by interaction with chlorine.With 2, 4 - dinitrobenzene hydrazine effect generated yellow 2, 4 - dinitrobenzene hydrazone (m.p. 115 ℃).
2. Stability: stability.
3. Prohibited compounds: strong oxidant, alkali, strong reducing agent.
4. Polymerization hazard: no polymerization.
1. Ecological toxicity
LC50:1690~5640mg/L(96h)(bluegill sunfish);3200mg/L(96h)(minnows, pH 7.5);1950 mg/L (24 h) (halogen insect);<520mg/L(48h)(daphnia, pH 8);918~3349mg/L(48h)(daphnia, pH 7.21)
Aerobic biodegradation (h):24~168;
Anaerobic biodegradation (h):96~672;
Photooxidation half-life in water (h):1.80 104~7.10 105;
Photooxidation half-life in air (h):64.2~642;
First order hydrolysis half-life (h):>50a.